40 CFR 63.2 - Definitions.
Title 40: Protection of EnvironmentCHAPTER I: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUBCHAPTER C: AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PART 63: NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Subpart A: General Provisions 63.2 - Definitions. The terms used in this part are defined in the Act or in this section as follows: Act means the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., as amended by Pub. L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399). Actual emissions is defined in subpart D of this part for the purpose of granting a compliance extension for an early reduction of hazardous air pollutants. Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or his or her authorized representative (e.g., a State that has been delegated the authority to implement the provisions of this part). Affected source, for the purposes of this part, means the collection of equipment, activities, or both within a single contiguous area and under common control that is included in a section 112(c) source category or subcategory for which a section 112(d) standard or other relevant standard is established pursuant to section 112 of the Act. Each relevant standard will define the ?affected source,? as defined in this paragraph unless a different definition is warranted based on a published justification as to why this definition would result in significant administrative, practical, or implementation problems and why the different definition would resolve those problems. The term ?affected source,? as used in this part, is separate and distinct from any other use of that term in EPA regulations such as those implementing title IV of the Act. Affected source may be defined differently for part 63 than affected facility and stationary source in parts 60 and 61, respectively. This definition of ?affected source,? and the procedures for adopting an alternative definition of ?affected source,? shall apply to each section 112(d) standard for which the initial proposed rule is signed by the Administrator after June 30, 2002. Alternative emission limitation means conditions established pursuant to sections 112(i)(5) or 112(i)(6) of the Act by the Administrator or by a State with an approved permit program. Alternative emission standard means an alternative means of emission limitation that, after notice and opportunity for public comment, has been demonstrated by an owner or operator to the Administrator's satisfaction to achieve a reduction in emissions of any air pollutant at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of such pollutant achieved under a relevant design, equipment, work practice, or operational emission standard, or combination thereof, established under this part pursuant to section 112(h) of the Act. Alternative test method means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant that is not a test method in this chapter and that has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction, using Method 301 in appendix A of this part, to produce results adequate for the Administrator's determination that it may be used in place of a test method specified in this part. Approved permit program means a State permit program approved by the Administrator as meeting the requirements of part 70 of this chapter or a Federal permit program established in this chapter pursuant to title V of the Act (42 U.S.C. 7661). Area source means any stationary source of hazardous air pollutants that is not a major source as defined in this part. Commenced means, with respect to construction or reconstruction of an affected source, that an owner or operator has undertaken a continuous program of construction or reconstruction or that an owner or operator has entered into a contractual obligation to undertake and complete, within a reasonable time, a continuous program of construction or reconstruction. Compliance date means the date by which an affected source is required to be in compliance with a relevant standard, limitation, prohibition, or any federally enforceable requirement established by the Administrator (or a State with an approved permit program) pursuant to section 112 of the Act. Compliance schedule means: (1) In the case of an affected source that is in compliance with all applicable requirements established under this part, a statement that the source will continue to comply with such requirements; or (2) In the case of an affected source that is required to comply with applicable requirements by a future date, a statement that the source will meet such requirements on a timely basis and, if required by an applicable requirement, a detailed schedule of the dates by which each step toward compliance will be reached; or (3) In the case of an affected source not in compliance with all applicable requirements established under this part, a schedule of remedial measures, including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations with milestones and a schedule for the submission of certified progress reports, where applicable, leading to compliance with a relevant standard, limitation, prohibition, or any federally enforceable requirement established pursuant to section 112 of the Act for which the affected source is not in compliance. This compliance schedule shall resemble and be at least as stringent as that contained in any judicial consent decree or administrative order to which the source is subject. Any such schedule of compliance shall be supplemental to, and shall not sanction noncompliance with, the applicable requirements on which it is based. Construction means the on-site fabrication, erection, or installation of an affected source. Construction does not include the removal of all equipment comprising an affected source from an existing location and reinstallation of such equipment at a new location. The owner or operator of an existing affected source that is relocated may elect not to reinstall minor ancillary equipment including, but not limited to, piping, ductwork, and valves. However, removal and reinstallation of an affected source will be construed as reconstruction if it satisfies the criteria for reconstruction as defined in this section. The costs of replacing minor ancillary equipment must be considered in determining whether the existing affected source is reconstructed. Continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) means the total equipment that may be required to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this part, used to sample, condition (if applicable), analyze, and provide a record of emissions. Continuous monitoring system (CMS) is a comprehensive term that may include, but is not limited to, continuous emission monitoring systems, continuous opacity monitoring systems, continuous parameter monitoring systems, or other manual or automatic monitoring that is used for demonstrating compliance with an applicable regulation on a continuous basis as defined by the regulation. Continuous opacity monitoring system (COMS) means a continuous monitoring system that measures the opacity of emissions. Continuous parameter monitoring system means the total equipment that may be required to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this part, used to sample, condition (if applicable), analyze, and provide a record of process or control system parameters. Effective date means: (1) With regard to an emission standard established under this part, the date of promulgation in the Federal Register of such standard; or (2) With regard to an alternative emission limitation or equivalent emission limitation determined by the Administrator (or a State with an approved permit program), the date that the alternative emission limitation or equivalent emission limitation becomes effective according to the provisions of this part. Emission standard means a national standard, limitation, prohibition, or other regulation promulgated in a subpart of this part pursuant to sections 112(d), 112(h), or 112(f) of the Act. Emissions averaging is a way to comply with the emission limitations specified in a relevant standard, whereby an affected source, if allowed under a subpart of this part, may create emission credits by reducing emissions from specific points to a level below that required by the relevant standard, and those credits are used to offset emissions from points that are not controlled to the level required by the relevant standard. EPA means the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Equivalent emission limitation means any maximum achievable control technology emission limitation or requirements which are applicable to a major source of hazardous air pollutants and are adopted by the Administrator (or a State with an approved permit program) on a case-by-case basis, pursuant to section 112(g) or (j) of the Act. Excess emissions and continuous monitoring system performance report is a report that must be submitted periodically by an affected source in order to provide data on its compliance with relevant emission limits, operating parameters, and the performance of its continuous parameter monitoring systems. Existing source means any affected source that is not a new source. Federally enforceable means all limitations and conditions that are enforceable by the Administrator and citizens under the Act or that are enforceable under other statutes administered by the Administrator. Examples of federally enforceable limitations and conditions include, but are not limited to: (1) Emission standards, alternative emission standards, alternative emission limitations, and equivalent emission limitations established pursuant to section 112 of the Act as amended in 1990; (2) New source performance standards established pursuant to section 111 of the Act, and emission standards established pursuant to section 112 of the Act before it was amended in 1990; (3) All terms and conditions in a title V permit, including any provisions that limit a source's potential to emit, unless expressly designated as not federally enforceable; (4) Limitations and conditions that are part of an approved State Implementation Plan (SIP) or a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP); (5) Limitations and conditions that are part of a Federal construction permit issued under 40 CFR 52.21 or any construction permit issued under regulations approved by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 51; (6) Limitations and conditions that are part of an operating permit where the permit and the permitting program pursuant to which it was issued meet all of the following criteria: (i) The operating permit program has been submitted to and approved by EPA into a State implementation plan (SIP) under section 110 of the CAA; (ii) The SIP imposes a legal obligation that operating permit holders adhere to the terms and limitations of such permits and provides that permits which do not conform to the operating permit program requirements and the requirements of EPA's underlying regulations may be deemed not ?federally enforceable? by EPA; (iii) The operating permit program requires that all emission limitations, controls, and other requirements imposed by such permits will be at least as stringent as any other applicable limitations and requirements contained in the SIP or enforceable under the SIP, and that the program may not issue permits that waive, or make less stringent, any limitations or requirements contained in or issued pursuant to the SIP, or that are otherwise ?federally enforceable?; (iv) The limitations, controls, and requirements in the permit in question are permanent, quantifiable, and otherwise enforceable as a practical matter; and (v) The permit in question was issued only after adequate and timely notice and opportunity for comment for EPA and the public. (7) Limitations and conditions in a State rule or program that has been approved by the EPA under subpart E of this part for the purposes of implementing and enforcing section 112; and (8) Individual consent agreements that the EPA has legal authority to create. Fixed capital cost means the capital needed to provide all the depreciable components of an existing source. Force majeure means, for purposes of ? 63.7, an event that will be or has been caused by circumstances beyond the control of the affected facility, its contractors, or any entity controlled by the affected facility that prevents the owner or operator from complying with the regulatory requirement to conduct performance tests within the specified timeframe despite the affected facility's best efforts to fulfill the obligation. Examples of such events are acts of nature, acts of war or terrorism, or equipment failure or safety hazard beyond the control of the affected facility. Fugitive emissions means those emissions from a stationary source that could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening. Under section 112 of the Act, all fugitive emissions are to be considered in determining whether a stationary source is a major source. Hazardous air pollutant means any air pollutant listed in or pursuant to section 112(b) of the Act. Issuance of a part 70 permit will occur, if the State is the permitting authority, in accordance with the requirements of part 70 of this chapter and the applicable, approved State permit program. When the EPA is the permitting authority, issuance of a title V permit occurs immediately after the EPA takes final action on the final permit. Major source means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants, unless the Administrator establishes a lesser quantity, or in the case of radionuclides, different criteria from those specified in this sentence. Malfunction means any sudden, infrequent, and not reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control and monitoring equipment, process equipment, or a process to operate in a normal or usual manner which causes, or has the potential to cause, the emission limitations in an applicable standard to be exceeded. Failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions. Monitoring means the collection and use of measurement data or other information to control the operation of a process or pollution control device or to verify a work practice standard relative to assuring compliance with applicable requirements. Monitoring is composed of four elements: (1) Indicator(s) of performance?the parameter or parameters you measure or observe for demonstrating proper operation of the pollution control measures or compliance with the applicable emissions limitation or standard. Indicators of performance may include direct or predicted emissions measurements (including opacity), operational parametric values that correspond to process or control device (and capture system) efficiencies or emissions rates, and recorded findings of inspection of work practice activities, materials tracking, or design characteristics. Indicators may be expressed as a single maximum or minimum value, a function of process variables (for example, within a range of pressure drops), a particular operational or work practice status (for example, a damper position, completion of a waste recovery task, materials tracking), or an interdependency between two or among more than two variables. (2) Measurement techniques?the means by which you gather and record information of or about the indicators of performance. The components of the measurement technique include the detector type, location and installation specifications, inspection procedures, and quality assurance and quality control measures. Examples of measurement techniques include continuous emission monitoring systems, continuous opacity monitoring systems, continuous parametric monitoring systems, and manual inspections that include making records of process conditions or work practices. (3) Monitoring frequency?the number of times you obtain and record monitoring data over a specified time interval. Examples of monitoring frequencies include at least four points equally spaced for each hour for continuous emissions or parametric monitoring systems, at least every 10 seconds for continuous opacity monitoring systems, and at least once per operating day (or week, month, etc.) for work practice or design inspections. (4) Averaging time?the period over which you average and use data to verify proper operation of the pollution control approach or compliance with the emissions limitation or standard. Examples of averaging time include a 3-hour average in units of the emissions limitation, a 30-day rolling average emissions value, a daily average of a control device operational parametric range, and an instantaneous alarm. New affected source means the collection of equipment, activities, or both within a single contiguous area and under common control that is included in a section 112(c) source category or subcategory that is subject to a section 112(d) or other relevant standard for new sources. This definition of ?new affected source,? and the criteria to be utilized in implementing it, shall apply to each section 112(d) standard for which the initial proposed rule is signed by the Administrator after June 30, 2002. Each relevant standard will define the term ?new affected source,? which will be the same as the ?affected source? unless a different collection is warranted based on consideration of factors including: (1) Emission reduction impacts of controlling individual sources versus groups of sources; (2) Cost effectiveness of controlling individual equipment; (3) Flexibility to accommodate common control strategies; (4) Cost/benefits of emissions averaging; (5) Incentives for pollution prevention; (6) Feasibility and cost of controlling processes that share common equipment (e.g., product recovery devices); (7) Feasibility and cost of monitoring; and (8) Other relevant factors. New source means any affected source the construction or reconstruction of which is commenced after the Administrator first proposes a relevant emission standard under this part establishing an emission standard applicable to such source. One-hour period, unless otherwise defined in an applicable subpart, means any 60-minute period commencing on the hour. Opacity means the degree to which emissions reduce the transmission of light and obscure the view of an object in the background. For continuous opacity monitoring systems, opacity means the fraction of incident light that is attenuated by an optical medium. Owner or operator means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a stationary source. Performance audit means a procedure to analyze blind samples, the content of which is known by the Administrator, simultaneously with the analysis of performance test samples in order to provide a measure of test data quality. Performance evaluation means the conduct of relative accuracy testing, calibration error testing, and other measurements used in validating the continuous monitoring system data. Performance test means the collection of data resulting from the execution of a test method (usually three emission test runs) used to demonstrate compliance with a relevant emission standard as specified in the performance test section of the relevant standard. Permit modification means a change to a title V permit as defined in regulations codified in this chapter to implement title V of the Act (42 U.S.C. 7661). Permit program means a comprehensive State operating permit system established pursuant to title V of the Act (42 U.S.C. 7661) and regulations codified in part 70 of this chapter and applicable State regulations, or a comprehensive Federal operating permit system established pursuant to title V of the Act and regulations codified in this chapter. Permit revision means any permit modification or administrative permit amendment to a title V permit as defined in regulations codified in this chapter to implement title V of the Act (42 U.S.C. 7661). Permitting authority means: (1) The State air pollution control agency, local agency, other State agency, or other agency authorized by the Administrator to carry out a permit program under part 70 of this chapter; or (2) The Administrator, in the case of EPA-implemented permit programs under title V of the Act (42 U.S.C. 7661). Pollution Prevention means source reduction as defined under the Pollution Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 13101-13109). The definition is as follows: (1) Source reduction is any practice that: (i) Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and (ii) Reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants. (2) The term source reduction includes equipment or technology modifications, process or procedure modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control. (3) The term source reduction does not include any practice that alters the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics or the volume of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant through a process or activity which itself is not integral to and necessary for the production of a product or the providing of a service. Potential to emit means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the stationary source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally enforceable. Reconstruction, unless otherwise defined in a relevant standard, means the replacement of components of an affected or a previously nonaffected source to such an extent that: (1) The fixed capital cost of the new components exceeds 50 percent of the fixed capital cost that would be required to construct a comparable new source; and (2) It is technologically and economically feasible for the reconstructed source to meet the relevant standard(s) established by the Administrator (or a State) pursuant to section 112 of the Act. Upon reconstruction, an affected source, or a stationary source that becomes an affected source, is subject to relevant standards for new sources, including compliance dates, irrespective of any change in emissions of hazardous air pollutants from that source. Regulation promulgation schedule means the schedule for the promulgation of emission standards under this part, established by the Administrator pursuant to section 112(e) of the Act and published in the Federal Register. Relevant standard means: (1) An emission standard; (2) An alternative emission standard; (3) An alternative emission limitation; or (4) An equivalent emission limitation established pursuant to section 112 of the Act that applies to the collection of equipment, activities, or both regulated by such standard or limitation. A relevant standard may include or consist of a design, equipment, work practice, or operational requirement, or other measure, process, method, system, or technique (including prohibition of emissions) that the Administrator (or a State) establishes for new or existing sources to which such standard or limitation applies. Every relevant standard established pursuant to section 112 of the Act includes subpart A of this part, as provided by ? 63.1(a)(4), and all applicable appendices of this part or of other parts of this chapter that are referenced in that standard. Responsible official means one of the following: (1) For a corporation: A president, secretary, treasurer, or vice president of the corporation in charge of a principal business function, or any other person who performs similar policy or decision-making functions for the corporation, or a duly authorized representative of such person if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more manufacturing, production, or operating facilities and either: (i) The facilities employ more than 250 persons or have gross annual sales or expenditures exceeding $25 million (in second quarter 1980 dollars); or (ii) The delegation of authority to such representative is approved in advance by the Administrator. (2) For a partnership or sole proprietorship: a general partner or the proprietor, respectively. (3) For a municipality, State, Federal, or other public agency: either a principal executive officer or ranking elected official. For the purposes of this part, a principal executive officer of a Federal agency includes the chief executive officer having responsibility for the overall operations of a principal geographic unit of the agency (e.g., a Regional Administrator of the EPA). (4) For affected sources (as defined in this part) applying for or subject to a title V permit: ?responsible official? shall have the same meaning as defined in part 70 or Federal title V regulations in this chapter (42 U.S.C. 7661), whichever is applicable. Run means one of a series of emission or other measurements needed to determine emissions for a representative operating period or cycle as specified in this part. Shutdown means the cessation of operation of an affected source or portion of an affected source for any purpose. Six-minute period means, with respect to opacity determinations, any one of the 10 equal parts of a 1-hour period. Source at a Performance Track member facility means a major or area source located at a facility which has been accepted by EPA for membership in the Performance Track Program (as described at www.epa.gov/PerformanceTrack) and is still a member of the Program. The Performance Track Program is a voluntary program that encourages continuous environmental improvement through the use of environmental management systems, local community outreach, and measurable results. Standard conditions means a temperature of 293 K (68 ?F) and a pressure of 101.3 kilopascals (29.92 in. Hg). Startup means the setting in operation of an affected source or portion of an affected source for any purpose. State means all non-Federal authorities, including local agencies, interstate associations, and State-wide programs, that have delegated authority to implement: (1) The provisions of this part and/or (2) the permit program established under part 70 of this chapter. The term State shall have its conventional meaning where clear from the context. Stationary source means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant. Test method means the validated procedure for sampling, preparing, and analyzing for an air pollutant specified in a relevant standard as the performance test procedure. The test method may include methods described in an appendix of this chapter, test methods incorporated by reference in this part, or methods validated for an application through procedures in Method 301 of appendix A of this part. Title V permit means any permit issued, renewed, or revised pursuant to Federal or State regulations established to implement title V of the Act (42 U.S.C. 7661). A title V permit issued by a State permitting authority is called a part 70 permit in this part. Visible emission means the observation of an emission of opacity or optical density above the threshold of vision. Working day means any day on which Federal Government offices (or State government offices for a State that has obtained delegation under section 112(l)) are open for normal business. Saturdays, Sundays, and official Federal (or where delegated, State) holidays are not working days. [59 FR 12430, Mar. 16, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 16596, Apr. 5, 2002; 68 FR 32600, May 30, 2003; 69 FR 21752, Apr. 22, 2004; 72 FR 27443, May 16, 2007]