29 CFR 1910.106 - Flammable liquids.

Updated to:July 2013
 
CONTENT

Title 29: Labor

Subtitle B: Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)

CHAPTER XVII: OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

PART 1910: OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS

Subpart H: Hazardous Materials

1910.106 - Flammable liquids.

(a) Definitions. As used in this section:

(1) Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure.

(2) Atmospheric tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g.

(3) Automotive service station shall mean that portion of property where flammable liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles and shall include any facilities available for the sale and service of tires, batteries, and accessories, and for minor automotive maintenance work. Major automotive repairs, painting, body and fender work are excluded.

(4) Basement shall mean a story of a building or structure having one-half or more of its height below ground level and to which access for fire fighting purposes is unduly restricted.

(5) Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for purposes of this section the 10 percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6, may be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

(6) Boilover shall mean the expulsion of crude oil (or certain other liquids) from a burning tank. The light fractions of the crude oil burnoff producing a heat wave in the residue, which on reaching a water strata may result in the expulsion of a portion of the contents of the tank in the form of froth.

(7) Bulk plant shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, or tank vehicle, and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, or container.

(8) Chemical plant shall mean a large integrated plant or that portion of such a plant other than a refinery or distillery where flammable liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions.

(9) Closed container shall mean a container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.

(10) Crude petroleum shall mean hydrocarbon mixtures that have a flash point below 150 ?F. and which have not been processed in a refinery.

(11) Distillery shall mean a plant or that portion of a plant where flammable liquids produced by fermentation are concentrated, and where the concentrated products may also be mixed, stored, or packaged.

(12) Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour.

(13) Flammable aerosol shall mean a flammable aerosol as defined by Appendix B to ? 1910.1200?Physical Hazard Criteria. For the purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, such aerosols are considered Category 1 flammable liquids.

(14) * * *

(i) For a liquid which has a viscosity of less than 45 SUS at 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), does not contain suspended solids, and does not have a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the procedure specified in the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Tag Closed Tester (ASTM D-56-70), which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6, or an equivalent test method as defined in Appendix B to ? 1910.1200?Physical Hazard Criteria, shall be used.

(ii) For a liquid which has a viscosity of 45 SUS or more at 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), or contains suspended solids, or has a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (ASTM D-93-71) or an equivalent method as defined by Appendix B to ? 1910.1200?Physical Hazard Criteria, shall be used except that the methods specified in Note 1 to section 1.1 of ASTM D-93-71 may be used for the respective materials specified in the Note. The preceding ASTM standard is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6.

(iii) For a liquid that is a mixture of compounds that have different volatilities and flashpoints, its flashpoint shall be determined by using the procedure specified in paragraph (a)(14)(i) or (ii) of this section on the liquid in the form it is shipped.

(iv) Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified in this subparagraph.

(15) Hotel shall mean buildings or groups of buildings under the same management in which there are sleeping accommodations for hire, primarily used by transients who are lodged with or without meals including but not limited to inns, clubs, motels, and apartment hotels.

(16) Institutional occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable or other care or treatment, or by persons involuntarily detained.

(17) Liquid shall mean, for the purpose of this section, any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-65, which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6.

(18) [Reserved]

(19) Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4 ?F (93 ?C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:

(i) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 ?F (23 ?C) and having a boiling point at or below 95 ?F (35 ?C).

(ii) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 ?F (23 ?C) and having a boiling point above 95 ?F (35 ?C).

(iii) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4 ?F (23 ?C) and at or below 140 ?F (60 ?C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) is heated for use to within 30 ?F (16.7 ?C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C).

(iv) Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140 ?F (60 ?C) and at or below 199.4 ?F (93 ?C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30 ?F (16.7 ?C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C).

(v) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 ?F (93 ?C) is heated for use to within 30 ?F (16.7 ?C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.

(20) Unstable (reactive) liquid shall mean a liquid which in the pure state or as commercially produced or transported will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.

(21) Low-pressure tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures above 0.5 p.s.i.g. but not more than 15 p.s.i.g.

(22) Marine service station shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.

(23) Mercantile occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the displaying, selling, or buying of goods, wares, or merchandise.

(24) Office occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the transaction of business, or the rendering or receiving of professional services.

(25) Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over 60 U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation.

(26) Pressure vessel shall mean a storage tank or vessel which has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.

(27) Protection for exposure shall mean adequate fire protection for structures on property adjacent to tanks, where there are employees of the establishment.

(28) Refinery shall mean a plant in which flammable liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources.

(29) Safety can shall mean an approved container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.

(30) Vapor pressure shall mean the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the ?Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method),? American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D323-68, which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6.

(31) Ventilation as specified in this section is for the prevention of fire and explosion. It is considered adequate if it is sufficient to prevent accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.

(32) Storage: Flammable liquids shall be stored in a tank or in a container that complies with paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(33) Barrel shall mean a volume of 42 U.S. gallons.

(34) Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum.

(35) Approved unless otherwise indicated, approved, or listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to ? 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(36) Listed see ?approved? in ? 1910.106(a)(35).

(37) SUS means Saybolt Universal Seconds as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Saybolt Viscosity (ASTM D-88-56), and may be determined by use of the SUS conversion tables specified in ASTM Method D2161-66 following determination of viscosity in accordance with the procedures specified in the Standard Method of Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (ASTM D445-65).

(38) Viscous means a viscosity of 45 SUS or more.

(b) Tank storage?(1) Design and construction of tanks?(i) Materials. (a) Tanks shall be built of steel except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) (b) through (e) of this section.

(b) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installation underground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tanks located above ground or inside buildings shall be of noncombustible construction.

(c) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design for the material used.

(d) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable liquids having a gravity of 40? API or heavier. Concrete tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Special engineering consideration shall be required if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 ?F.

(ii) Fabrication. (a) [Reserved]

(b) Metal tanks shall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing shall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000 ?F. and below that of the metal joined.

(iii) Atmospheric tanks. (a) Atmospheric tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks may be built in accordance with the following consensus standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6:

(1) Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58, Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.

(2) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.

(3) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962; No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition, August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance with these standards shall be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum in oil-producing areas.

(b) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons capacity may be used aboveground.

(c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.

(d) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.

(iv) Low pressure tanks. (a) The normal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.

(b) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with the following consensus standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6:

(1) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620. Recommended Rules for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Third Edition, 1966.

(2) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.

(c) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., requirements in subdivision (iii)(a) of and shall be limited to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions.

This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g.

(d) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.

(v) Pressure vessels. (a) The normal operating pressure of the vessel shall not exceed the design pressure of the vessel.

(b) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1968.

(vi) Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or linings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.

(2) Installation of outside aboveground tanks.

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground tanks. (a) The distance between any two flammable liquid storage tanks shall not be less than 3 feet.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c) of this section, the distance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-sixth the sum of their diameters. When the diameter of one tank is less than one-half the diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between the two tanks shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the smaller tank.

(c) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities are located in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 126,000 gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall not be less than 3 feet.

(d) Where unstable flammable liquids are stored, the distance between such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.

(e) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so that inside tanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.

(f) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas container and a flammable liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet, except in the case of flammable liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in which case the provisions of subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subdivision shall apply. Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable liquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers such as by diversion curbs or grading. When flammable liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shall be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area. The foregoing provisions shall not apply when liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons or less capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons or less capacity.

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) Normal venting for aboveground tanks. (a) Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature changes.

(b) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: (1) The American Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6; or (2) other accepted standard; or (3) shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 11/4 inch nominal inside diameter.

(c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to prevent overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.

(d) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.

(e) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 p.s.i. or less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge in such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.

(f)(1) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 1 flammable liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting to pressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters.

(2) Exemption: Tanks of 3,000 bbls (barrels). capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas and outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons capacity containing other than Category 1 flammable liquids may have open vents. (See paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(b) of this section.)

(g) Flame arresters or venting devices required in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section may be omitted for Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result in tank damage.

(v) Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks. (a) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction or device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure fires.

(b) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in subdivision (a) of this subdivision may take the form of a floating roof, lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail preferential to any other seam.

(c) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table H-10 except as provided in subdivision (e) or (f) of this subdivision. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet above grade of the exposed shell area of a vertical tank.

Table H-10?Wetted Area Versus Cubic Feet Free Air Per Hour

[14.7 psia and 60 ?F.]

Square feet CFH Square feet CFH Square feet CFH
20 21,100 200 211,000 1,000 524,000
30 31,600 250 239,000 1,200 557,000
40 42,100 300 265,000 1,400 587,000
50 52,700 350 288,000 1,600 614,000
60 63,200 400 312,000 1,800 639,000
70 73,700 500 354,000 2,000 662,000
80 84,200 600 392,000 2,400 704,000
90 94,800 700 428,000 2,800 742,000
100 105,000 800 462,000 and
120 126,000 900 493,000 over
140 147,000 1,000 524,000
160 168,000
180 190,000
200 211,000

(d) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table H-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800 square feet, the total rate of venting shall be calculated by the following formula:

CFH = 1,107A 0.82

Where;

CFH = Venting requirement, in cubic feet of free air per hour.

A = Exposed wetted surface, in square feet.

Note:

The foregoing formula is based on Q=21,000A

0.82.

(e) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:

V = 1337 ? L?M

V = Cubic feet of free air per hour from Table H-10.

L = Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per pound.

M = Molecular weight of specific liquids.

(f) The required airflow rate of subdivision (c) or (e) of this subdivision may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be used for any one tank.

0.5 for drainage in accordance with subdivision (vii)(b) of this subparagraph for tanks over 200 square feet of wetted area.

0.3 for approved water spray.

0.3 for approved insulation.

0.15 for approved water spray with approved insulation.

(g) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergency venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.

(h) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet per hour of air at 60 ?F. and at a pressure of 14.7 p.s.i.a.

(i) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12 inches nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word ?calculated? appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.

(vi) Vent piping for aboveground tanks. (a) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are adjacent to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid their dispersion, vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacent walls. Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least five feet from building openings.

(c) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.

(vii) Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks?(a) Drainage and diked areas. The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall be provided with drainage as in subdivision (b) of this subdivision, or shall be diked as provided in subdivision (c) of this subdivision, to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property or reaching waterways.

(b) Drainage. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is by means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) The drainage system shall terminate in vacant land or other area or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smaller than that of the largest tank served. This termination area and the route of the drainage system shall be so located that, if the flammable liquids in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriously expose tanks or adjoining property.

(c) Diked areas. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, the volume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:

(1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subdivision, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.

(2) For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude petroleum with boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank served by the enclosure, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked enclosure shall be calculated by deducting the volume below the height of the dike of all tanks within the enclosure.

(3) Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full hydrostatic head. Earthen walls 3 feet or more in height shall have a flat section at the top not less than 2 feet wide. The slope of an earthen wall shall be consistent with the angle of repose of the material of which the wall is constructed.

(4) The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average height of 6 feet above interior grade.

(5) [Reserved]

(6) No loose combustible material, empty or full drum or barrel, shall be permitted within the diked area.

(viii) Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks.

(a)-(c) [Reserved]

(d) Openings for gaging shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover.

(e) For Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity. A fill pipe entering the top of a tank shall terminate within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank and shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration.

(f) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.

(3) Installation of underground tanks? (i) Location. Excavation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or tanks under buildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundations and supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank. The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), to the nearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than 1 foot, and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than 3 feet. The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall be not less than 1 foot.

(ii) Depth and cover. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches of noncorrosive, inert materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place. The tank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tank into the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape off the protective coating of coated tanks. Tanks shall be covered with a minimum of 2 feet of earth, or shall be covered with not less than 1 foot of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than 4 inches thick. When underground tanks are, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against damage from vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet of earth cover, or 18 inches of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches of reinforced concrete or 8 inches of asphaltic concrete. When asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, it shall extend at least 1 foot horizontally beyond the outline of the tank in all directions.

(iii) Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for the tank and its piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:

(a) Use of protective coatings or wrappings;

(b) Cathodic protection; or,

(c) Corrosion resistant materials of construction.

(iv) Vents.-(a) Location and arrangement of vents for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C). Vent pipes from tanks storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be so located that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipe opening, and not less than 12 feet above the adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors. Vent pipes 2 inches or less in nominal inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building openings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipe is less than 10 feet in length, or greater than 2 inches in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and pressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the outlet.

(b) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 11/4 inch nominal inside diameter.

Table H-11?Vent Line Diameters

1 Vent lines of 50 ft., 100 ft., and 200 ft. of pipe plus 7 ells.

Maximum flow GPM Pipe length 1

50 feet 100 feet 200 feet

Inches Inches Inches

100 11/4

11/4

11/4

200 11/4

11/4

11/4

300 11/4

11/4

11/2

400 11/4

11/2

2
500 11/2

11/2

2
600 11/2

2 2
700 2 2 2
800 2 2 3
900 2 2 3
1,000 2 2 3

(c) Location and arrangement of vents for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids shall terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening. Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be fitted with return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreign material.

(d) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. They shall be located so that they will not be subjected to physical damage. The tank end of the vent pipe shall enter the tank through the top.

(e) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.

(v) Tank openings other than vents. (a) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquid tight.

(b) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. If inside a building, each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.

(c) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank.

(d) For Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank.

(e) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.

(4) Installation of tanks inside of buildings?(i) Location. Tanks shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided in paragraphs (e), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.

(ii) Vents. Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in subparagraphs (2) (iv), (v), (vi)(b), and (3)(iv) of this paragraph, except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.

(iii) Vent piping. Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) Tank openings other than vents. (a) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquidtight. Vents are covered in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph.

(b) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which liquid can normally flow shall be provided with an internal or an external valve located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemical characteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel. When materials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for the pressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire exposures.

(c) Flammable liquid tanks located inside of buildings, except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closing heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level, except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flow in the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank. This function may be incorporated in the valve required in (b) of this subdivision, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valve required in (b) of this subdivision.

(d) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (see (f) of this subdivision), shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover. Each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.

(e) For Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), other than crude oils, gasoline, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank.

(f) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration of the pipe.

(g) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet away from any building opening. The inlet of the fill pipe shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The fill connection shall be properly identified.

(h) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other means shall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.

(5) Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations?(i) General. Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single wood timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches high at their lowest point.

(ii) Fire resistance. Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, except that steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 inches high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or its equivalent may be used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.

(iii) Spheres. The design of the supporting structure for tanks such as spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.

(iv) Load distribution. Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent the excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.

(v) Foundations. Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimize corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.

(vi) Flood areas. Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this subdivision shall be observed.

(a) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level within the tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the tank is provided with a guiding structure such as described in (m), (n), and (o) of this subdivision.

(b) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at locations where there is no ample and dependable public water supply available for loading partially empty tanks with water.

(c) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located that more than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable liquid storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage, shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised, or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximum flood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or more of its allowable liquid storage capacity: Provided, however, That the submerged part of the tank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as an alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides, designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product, shall be provided.

(d) Each horizontal tank so located that more than 70 percent of its storage capacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall be anchored, attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and concrete, of sufficient weight to provide adequate load for the tank when filled with flammable liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage, or adequately secured by other means.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) At locations where there is no ample and dependable water supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquids is impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, or for other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when empty and submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, weighting with concrete or other approved solid loading material, or securing by other means. Each such tank shall be so constructed and installed that it will safely resist external pressures due to high ground water or flood waters.

(g) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supply available, underground tanks containing flammable liquids, so installed that more than 70 percent of their storage capacity will be submerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so anchored, weighted, or secured by other means, as to prevent movement of such tanks when filled with flammable liquids, and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage.

(h) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank shall be provided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable to the tank shell. Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be of steel or other material suitable for use with the liquid being stored. Cast iron shall not be permitted.

(i) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it shall be entirely independent of public power and water supply. Independent source of water shall be available when flood waters reach a level not less than 10 feet below the bottom of the lowest tank on a property.

(j) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or so designed that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously throughout the rise in flood waters from a level 10 feet below the lowest tank to the level of the potential flood stage.

(k) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise of water in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential average rate of rise of flood waters at any stage.

(l) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to insure that it is in satisfactory operating condition.

(m) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their foundations shall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the free rise of a tank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible material.

(n) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateral movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalent to not less than 25 pounds per square foot acting on the projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.

(o) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline where swift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall be designed to withstand a unit force of not less than 50 pounds per square foot.

(p) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be started as soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage. The rate of filling shall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the floodwaters (or the established average potential rate of rise).

(q) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at all times to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.

(r) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in closed position when water loading has been completed.

(s) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of floating tanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall be disconnected and blanked off or blinded before the floodwaters reach the bottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to the tank are of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve and the tank shell.

(t) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection with water loading operations shall be closed and locked.

(u) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be raised to and secured at its highest position.

(v) Inspections. The Assistant Secretary or his designated representative shall make periodic inspections of all plants where the storage of flammable liquids is such as to require compliance with the foregoing requirements, in order to assure the following:

(1) That all flammable liquid storage tanks are in compliance with these requirements and so maintained.

(2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergencies are properly posted.

(3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry out such instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation of such valves and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements.

(vii) Earthquake areas. In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supports and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of such shocks.

(6) Sources of ignition. In locations where flammable vapors may be present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating or controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames, lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemical and physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.

(7) Testing?(i) General. All tanks, whether shop built or field erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they were built. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp, American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliance with this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codes shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with good engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections on testing in the codes listed in subparagraphs (1) (iii)(a), (iv)(b), or (v)(b) of this paragraph.

(ii) Strength. When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is such that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of the tank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch, the tank and related piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static head thus imposed.

(iii) Tightness. In addition to the strength test called for in subdivisions (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph, all tanks and connections shall be tested for tightness. Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall be made at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing the tank in service. In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may be considered to be the test for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping, before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for tightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds per square inch and not more than 5 pounds per square inch.

(iv) Repairs. All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical caulking is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks in the roof.

(v) Derated operations. Tanks to be operated at pressures below their design pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of subdivision (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph, based upon the pressure developed under full emergency venting of the tank.

(c) Piping, valves, and fittings?(1) General?(i) Design. The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31 series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.

(ii) Exceptions. This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:

(a) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connected directly thereto.

(b) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engines.

(c) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressures vessel code.

(iii) Definitions. As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressure containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow.

(2) Materials for piping, valves, and fittings?(i) Required materials. Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) (ii), (iii) and (iv) of this section.

(ii) Exceptions. Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of the flammable liquid handled. Material other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.

(iii) Linings. Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or noncombustible linings.

(iv) Low-melting materials. When low-melting point materials such as aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as plastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, special consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. If such materials are used in above ground piping systems or inside buildings, they shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that any spill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled by remote valves.

(3) Pipe joints. Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or screwed joints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints and connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping compound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used inside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or below ground. If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that any spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remote valves.

(4) Supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.

(5) Protection against corrosion. All piping for flammable liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to external corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.

(6) Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to control properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage. Each connection to pipelines, by which equipments such as tankcars or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks, shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible.

(7) Testing. All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints and connections, but for at least 10 minutes.

(d) Container and portable tank storage?(1) Scope?(i) General. This paragraph shall apply only to the storage of flammable liquids in drums or other containers (including flammable aerosols) not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and those portable tanks not exceeding 660 gallons individual capacity.

(ii) Exceptions. This paragraph shall not apply to the following:

(a) Storage of containers in bulk plants, service stations, refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries;

(b) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids in the fuel tanks of a motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engine;

(c) Flammable paints, oils, varnishes, and similar mixtures used for painting or maintenance when not kept for a period in excess of 30 days;

(d) Beverages when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 gallon in size.

(2) Design, construction, and capacity of containers?(i) General. Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used. Metal containers and portable tanks meeting the requirements of and containing products authorized by chapter I, title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (regulations issued by the Hazardous Materials Regulations Board, Department of Transportation), shall be deemed to be acceptable.

(ii) Emergency venting. Each portable tank shall be provided with one or more devices installed in the top with sufficient emergency venting capacity to limit internal pressure under fire exposure conditions to 10 p.s.i.g., or 30 percent of the bursting pressure of the tank, whichever is greater. The total venting capacity shall be not less than that specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(v) (c) or (e) of this section. At least one pressure-activated vent having a minimum capacity of 6,000 cubic feet of free air (14.7 p.s.i.a. and 60 ?F.) shall be used. It shall be set to open at not less than 5 p.s.i.g. If fusible vents are used, they shall be actuated by elements that operate at a temperature not exceeding 300 ?F.

(iii) Size. Flammable and combustible liquid containers shall be in accordance with Table H-12, except that glass or plastic containers of no more than 1-gallon capacity may be used for a Category 1 or 2 flammable liquid if:

(a)(1) Such liquid either would be rendered unfit for its intended use by contact with metal or would excessively corrode a metal container so as to create a leakage hazard; and

(2) The user's process either would require more than 1 pint of a Category 1 flammable liquid or more than 1 quart of a Category 2 flammable liquid of a single assay lot to be used at one time, or would require the maintenance of an analytical standard liquid of a quality which is not met by the specified standards of liquids available, and the quantity of the analytical standard liquid required to be used in any one control process exceeds one-sixteenth the capacity of the container allowed under Table H-12 for the category of liquid; or

(b) The containers are intended for direct export outside the United States.

Table H-12?Maximum Allowable Size of Containers and Portable Tanks for Flammable Liquids

Note: Container exemptions: (a) Medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other common consumer items, when packaged according to commonly accepted practices, shall be exempt from the requirements of 1910.106(d)(2)(i) and (ii).

Container type Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
Glass or approved plastic 1 pt 1 qt 1 gal 1 gal.
Metal (other than DOT drums) 1 gal 5 gal 5 gal 5 gal.
Safety cans 2 gal 5 gal 5 gal 5 gal.
Metal drums (DOT specifications) 60 gal 60 gal 60 gal 60 gal.
Approved portable tanks 660 gal 660 gal 660 gal 660 gal.

(3) Design, construction, and capacity of storage cabinets?(i) Maximum capacity. Not more than 60 gallons of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids, nor more than 120 gallons of Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored in a storage cabinet.

(ii) Fire resistance. Storage cabinets shall be designed and constructed to limit the internal temperature to not more than 325 ?F. when subjected to a 10-minute fire test using the standard time-temperature curve as set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6. All joints and seams shall remain tight and the door shall remain securely closed during the fire test. Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, ?Flammable?Keep Fire Away.?

(a) Metal cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be deemed to be in compliance. The bottom, top, door, and sides of cabinet shall be at least No. 18 gage sheet iron and double walled with 11/2-inch air space. Joints shall be riveted, welded or made tight by some equally effective means. The door shall be provided with a three-point lock, and the door sill shall be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet.

(b) Wooden cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be deemed in compliance. The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of an approved grade of plywood at least 1 inch in thickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under fire conditions. All joints shall be rabbetted and shall be fastened in two directions with flathead woodscrews. When more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbetted overlap of not less than 1 inch. Hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as not to lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to the fire test.

(4) Design and construction of inside storage rooms?(i) Construction. Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969. Where an automatic sprinkler system is provided, the system shall be designed and installed in an acceptable manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor. Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench inside of the room which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other properties are exposed, windows shall be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6, for Class E or F openings. Wood at least 1 inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations.

(ii) Rating and capacity. Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table H-13.

Table H-13?Storage in Inside Rooms

1 Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide, or other system.

Fire protection 1 provided Fire resistance Maximum size Total allowable quantities (gals./sq. ft./floor area)
Yes 2 hours 500 sq. ft 10
No 2 hours 500 sq. ft 5
Yes 1 hour 150 sq. ft 4
No 1 hour 150 sq. ft 2

(iii) Wiring. Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms used for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be approved under subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations; for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids, shall be approved for general use.

(iv) Ventilation. Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhaust ventilation system. Such system shall be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least six times per hour. If a mechanical exhaust system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. A pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhaust outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.

(v) Storage in inside storage rooms. In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other. Dispensing shall be by approved pump or self-closing faucet only.

(5) Storage inside building?(i) Egress. Flammable liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored so as to limit use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people.

(ii) Containers. The storage of flammable liquids in containers or portable tanks shall comply with subdivisions (iii) through (v) of this subparagraph.

(iii) Office occupancies. Storage shall be prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of building and operation of equipment. Such storage shall be kept in closed metal containers stored in a storage cabinet or in safety cans or in an inside storage room not having a door that opens into that portion of the building used by the public.

(iv) Mercantile occupancies and other retail stores.

(a)-(d) [Reserved]

(e) Leaking containers shall be removed to a storage room or taken to a safe location outside the building and the contents transferred to an undamaged container.

(v) General purpose public warehouses. Storage shall be in accordance with Table H-14 or H-15 and in buildings or in portions of such buildings cut off by standard firewalls. Material creating no fire exposure hazard to the flammable liquids may be stored in the same area.

ER26MR12.054

ER26MR12.055

(vi) Flammable liquid warehouses or storage buildings. (a) If the storage building is located 50 feet or less from a building or line of adjoining property that may be built upon, the exposing wall shall be a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours.

(b) The total quantity of liquids within a building shall not be restricted, but the arrangement of storage shall comply with Table H-14 or H-15.

(c) Containers in piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage where necessary to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls.

(d) Portable tanks stored over one tier high shall be designed to nest securely, without dunnage, and adequate materials handing equipment shall be available to handle tanks safely at the upper tier level.

(e) No pile shall be closer than 3 feet to the nearest beam, chord, girder, or other obstruction, and shall be 3 feet below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray, or other overhead fire protection systems.

(f) Aisles of at least 3 feet wide shall be provided where necessary for reasons of access to doors, windows or standpipe connections.

(6) Storage outside buildings?(i) General. Storage outside buildings shall be in accordance with Table H-16 or H-17, and subdivisions (ii) and (iv) of this subparagraph.

ER26MR12.056

(ii) Maximum storage. A maximum of 1,100 gallons of flammable liquids may be located adjacent to buildings located on the same premises and under the same management provided the provisions of subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subdivision are complied with.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Where quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons, or provisions of subdivision (a) of this subdivision cannot be met, a minimum distance of 10 feet between buildings and nearest container of flammable liquid shall be maintained.

(iii) Spill containment. The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures or shall be surrounded by a curb at least 6 inches high. When curbs are used, provisions shall be made for draining of accumulations of ground or rain water or spills of flammable liquids. Drains shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation under fire conditions.

(iv) Security. The storage area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers where necessary and shall be kept free of weeds, debris and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.

(7) Fire control?(i) Extinguishers. Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers, shall be available at locations where flammable liquids are stored.

ER26MR12.057

(a) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage.

(b) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units must be located not less than 10 feet, nor more than 25 feet, from any Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquid storage area located outside of a storage room but inside a building.

(ii) Sprinklers. When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with ? 1910.159.

(iii) Open flames and smoking. Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted in flammable liquid storage areas.

(iv) Water reactive materials. Materials which will react with water shall not be stored in the same room with flammable liquids.

(e) Industrial plants?(1) Scope?(i) Application. This paragraph shall apply to those industrial plants where:

(a) The use of flammable liquids is incidental to the principal business, or

(b) Where flammable liquids are handled or used only in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical reaction. This paragraph shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.

(ii) Exceptions. Where portions of such plants involve chemical reactions such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes, those portions of the plant shall be in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section.

(2) Incidental storage or use of flammable liquids?(i) Application. This subparagraph shall be applicable to those portions of an industrial plant where the use and handling of flammable liquids is only incidental to the principal business, such as automobile assembly, construction of electronic equipment, furniture manufacturing, or other similar activities.

(ii) Containers. Flammable liquids shall be stored in tanks or closed containers.

(a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b) and (c) of this subdivision, all storage shall comply with paragraph (d) (3) or (4) of this section.

(b) The quantity of liquid that may be located outside of an inside storage room or storage cabinet in a building or in any one fire area of a building shall not exceed:

(1) 25 gallons of Category 1 flammable liquids in containers

(2) 120 gallons of Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable liquids in containers

(3) 660 gallons of Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable liquids in a single portable tank.

(c) Where large quantities of flammable liquids are necessary, storage may be in tanks which shall comply with the applicable requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) Separation and protection. Areas in which flammable liquids are transferred from one tank or container to another container shall be separated from other operations in the building by adequate distance or by construction having adequate fire resistance. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided.

(iv) Handling liquids at point of final use.-(a) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.

(b) Where flammable liquids are used or handled, except in closed containers, means shall be provided to dispose promptly and safely of leakage or spills.

(c) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travel.

(d) Flammable liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or portable tanks within a building only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container or portable tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.

(3) Unit physical operations?(i) Application. This subparagraph shall be applicable in those portions of industrial plants where flammable liquids are handled or used in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical change. Examples are plants compounding cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, solvents, cleaning fluids, insecticides, and similar types of activities.

(ii) Location. Industrial plants shall be located so that each building or unit of equipment is accessible from at least one side for firefighting and fire control purposes. Buildings shall be located with respect to lines of adjoining property which may be built upon as set forth in paragraph (h)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section except that the blank wall referred to in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section shall have a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours.

(iii) Chemical processes. Areas where unstable liquids are handled or small scale unit chemical processes are carried on shall be separated from the remainder of the plant by a fire wall of 2-hour minimum fire resistance rating.

(iv) Drainage. (a) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire; see paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(b) of this section.

(b) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separator.

(v) Ventilation.-(a) Areas as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section using Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provision shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.

(b) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than 5 feet from equipment which exposes Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.

(vi) Storage and handling. The storage, transfer, and handling of liquid shall comply with paragraph (h)(4) of this section.

(4) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading. (i) Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids, measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(ii) [Reserved]

(5) Fire control?(i) Portable and special equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.

(ii) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam-producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation, dispensing and storage.

(iii) Special extinguishers. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation dispensing and storage.

(iv) Special hazards. Where the need is indicated by special hazards of operation, flammable liquid processing equipment, major piping, and supporting steel shall be protected by approved water spray systems, deluge systems, approved fire-resistant coatings, insulation, or any combination of these.

(v) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition, and they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.

(6) Sources of ignition?(i) General. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.

(ii) Grounding. Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(7) Electrical?(i) Equipment. (a) All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed according to the requirements of subpart S of this part.

(b) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with subparagraph (3)(v)(b) of this paragraph, the Division 1 area shall extend 5 feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.

(c) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. These locations include an area within 20 feet horizontally, 3 feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet, if indoors, or 10 feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If only Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.

(d) Where the provisions of subdivisions (a), (b), and (c), of this subdivision require the installation of electrical equipment suitable for Class I, Division 1 or Division 2 locations, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.

(8) Repairs to equipment. Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge. The individual in responsible charge shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.

(9) Housekeeping?(i) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.

(ii) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of flammable liquid storage, use, or any unit physical operation.

(iii) Waste and residue. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or unit operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.

(iv) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and unit operating areas shall be kept free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials.

(f) Bulk plants?(1) (i) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C). Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be stored in closed containers, or in storage tanks above ground outside of buildings, or underground in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids. Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids shall be stored in containers, or in tanks within buildings or above ground outside of buildings, or underground in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) Piling containers. Containers of flammable liquids when piled one upon the other shall be separated by dunnage sufficient to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. The height of the pile shall be consistent with the stability and strength of containers.

(2) Buildings?(i) Exits. Rooms in which flammable liquids are stored or handled by pumps shall have exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire.

(ii) Heating. Rooms in which Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are stored or handled shall be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. Rooms containing heating appliances involving sources of ignition shall be located and arranged to prevent entry of flammable vapors.

(iii) Ventilation. (a) Ventilation shall be provided for all rooms, buildings, or enclosures in which Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are pumped or dispensed. Design of ventilation systems shall take into account the relatively high specific gravity of the vapors. Ventilation may be provided by adequate openings in outside walls at floor level unobstructed except by louvers or coarse screens. Where natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided.

(b) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.

(c) Containers of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be drawn from or filled within buildings unless provision is made to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors in hazardous concentrations. Where mechanical ventilation is required, it shall be kept in operation while flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) are being handled.

(3) Loading and unloading facilities? (i) Separation. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property that may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill spout. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility.

(ii) Category restriction. Equipment such as piping, pumps, and meters used for the transfer of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), between storage tanks and the fill stem of the loading rack shall not be used for the transfer of Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids.

(iii) Valves. Valves used for the final control for filling tank vehicles shall be of the self-closing type and manually held open except where automatic means are provided for shutting off the flow when the vehicle is full or after filling of a preset amount.

(iv) Static protection. (a) Bonding facilities for protection against static sparks during the loading of tank vehicles through open domes shall be provided:

(1) Where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are loaded, or

(2) Where Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are loaded into vehicles which may contain vapors from previous cargoes of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C).

(b) Protection as required in (a) of this subdivision (iv) shall consist of a metallic bond wire permanently electrically connected to the fill stem or to some part of the rack structure in electrical contact with the fill stem. The free end of such wire shall be provided with a clamp or equivalent device for convenient attachment to some metallic part in electrical contact with the cargo tank of the tank vehicle.

(c) Such bonding connection shall be made fast to the vehicle or tank before dome covers are raised and shall remain in place until filling is completed and all dome covers have been closed and secured.

(d) Bonding as specified in (a), (b), and (c) of this subdivision is not required:

(1) Where vehicles are loaded exclusively with products not having a static accumulating tendency, such as asphalt, most crude oils, residual oils, and water soluble liquids;

(2) Where no Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are handled at the loading facility and the tank vehicles loaded are used exclusively for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids; and

(3) Where vehicles are loaded or unloaded through closed bottom or top connections.

(e) Filling through open domes into the tanks of tank vehicles or tank cars, that contain vapor-air mixtures within the flammable range or where the liquid being filled can form such a mixture, shall be by means of a downspout which extends near the bottom of the tank. This precaution is not required when loading liquids which are nonaccumulators of static charges.

(v) Stray currents. Tank car loading facilities where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are loaded through open domes shall be protected against stray currents by bonding the pipe to at least one rail and to the rack structure if of metal. Multiple lines entering the rack area shall be electrically bonded together. In addition, in areas where excessive stray currents are known to exist, all pipe entering the rack area shall be provided with insulating sections to electrically isolate the rack piping from the pipelines. No bonding between the tank car and the rack or piping is required during either loading or unloading of Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids.

(vi) Container filling facilities. Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(4) Wharves?(i) Definition, application. The term wharf shall mean any wharf, pier, bulkhead, or other structure over or contiguous to navigable water used in conjunction with a bulk plant, the primary function of which is the transfer of flammable liquid cargo in bulk between the bulk plant and any tank vessel, ship, barge, lighter boat, or other mobile floating craft; and this subparagraph shall apply to all such installations except Marine Service Stations as covered in paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii)-(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) Design and construction. Substructure and deck shall be substantially designed for the use intended. Deck may employ any material which will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength, and fire resistance. Heavy timber construction is acceptable.

(v) [Reserved]

(vi) Pumps. Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with bypasses, relief valves, or other arrangement to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested at not more than yearly intervals to determine that they function satisfactorily at the pressure at which they are set.

(vii) Hoses and couplings. All pressure hoses and couplings shall be inspected at intervals appropriate to the service. The hose and couplings shall be tested with the hose extended and using the ?inservice maximum operating pressures.? Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded.

(viii) Piping and fittings. Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, with the following exceptions and additions:

(a) Flexibility of piping shall be assured by appropriate layout and arrangement of piping supports so that motion of the wharf structure resulting from wave action, currents, tides, or the mooring of vessels will not subject the pipe to repeated strain beyond the elastic limit.

(b) Pipe joints depending upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials or grooving of pipe ends for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used.

(c) Swivel joints may be used in piping to which hoses are connected, and for articulated swivel-joint transfer systems, provided that the design is such that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if the packing material should fail, as by exposure to fire.

(d) Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to control the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage.

(e) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (f)(4)(viii)(d) of this section, each line conveying Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), leading to a wharf shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve located on shore near the approach to the wharf and outside of any diked area. Where more than one line is involved, the valves shall be grouped in one location.

(f) Means of easy access shall be provided for cargo line valves located below the wharf deck.

(g) Pipelines on flammable liquids wharves shall be adequately bonded and grounded. If excessive stray currents are encountered, insulating joints shall be installed. Bonding and grounding connections on all pipelines shall be located on wharfside of hose-riser insulating flanges, if used, and shall be accessible for inspection.

(h) Hose or articulated swivel-joint pipe connections used for cargo transfer shall be capable of accommodating the combined effects of change in draft and maximum tidal range, and mooring lines shall be kept adjusted to prevent the surge of the vessel from placing stress on the cargo transfer system.

(i) Hose shall be supported so as to avoid kinking and damage from chafing.

(ix) Fire protection. Suitable portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 12-BC shall be located within 75 feet of those portions of the facility where fires are likely to occur, such as hose connections, pumps, and separator tanks.

(a) Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided so that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by at least one hose stream.

(b) Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner as to obstruct access to firefighting equipment, or important pipeline control valves.

(c) Where the wharf is accessible to vehicle traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access of firefighting apparatus.

(x) Operations control. Loading or discharging shall not commence until the wharf superintendent and officer in charge of the tank vessel agree that the tank vessel is properly moored and all connections are properly made. Mechanical work shall not be performed on the wharf during cargo transfer, except under special authorization based on a review of the area involved, methods to be employed, and precautions necessary.

(5) Electrical equipment?(i) Application. This paragraph (f)(5)(i) shall apply to areas where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are stored or handled. For areas where only Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled, the electrical equipment may be installed in accordance with the provisions of Subpart S of this part, for ordinary locations.

(ii) Conformance. All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(iii) Classification. So far as it applies Table H-18 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. In Table H-18 a classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition. The area classifications listed shall be based on the premise that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.

(6) Sources of ignition. Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be handled, drawn, or dispensed where flammable vapors may reach a source of ignition. Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated localities. ?No Smoking? signs shall be conspicuously posted where hazard from flammable liquid vapors is normally present.

(7) Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made to prevent flammable liquids which may be spilled at loading or unloading points from entering public sewers and drainage systems, or natural waterways. Connection to such sewers, drains, or waterways by which flammable liquids might enter shall be provided with separator boxes or other approved means whereby such entry is precluded. Crankcase drainings and flammable liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, but shall be stored in tanks or tight drums outside of any building until removed from the premises.

(8) Fire control. Suitable fire-control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers, shall be available to locations where fires are likely to occur. Additional fire-control equipment may be required where a tank of more than 50,000 gallons individual capacity contains Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), and where an unusual exposure hazard exists from surrounding property. Such additional fire-control equipment shall be sufficient to extinguish a fire in the largest tank. The design and amount of such equipment shall be in accordance with approved engineering standards.

(g) Service stations?(1) Storage and handling?(i) General provisions. (a) Liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers not exceeding 60 gallons capacity, in tanks located underground, in tanks in special enclosures as described in paragraph (g)(i) of this section, or in aboveground tanks as provided for in paragraphs (g)(4)(ii), (b), (c) and (d) of this section.

(b) Aboveground tanks, located in an adjoining bulk plant, may be connected by piping to service station underground tanks if, in addition to valves at aboveground tanks, a valve is also installed within control of service station personnel.

(c) Apparatus dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles of the public shall not be located at a bulk plant unless separated by a fence or similar barrier from the area in which bulk operations are conducted.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) The provisions of paragraph (g)(1)(i)(a) of this section shall not prohibit the dispensing of flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) in the open from a tank vehicle to a motor vehicle. Such dispensing shall be permitted provided:

(1) The tank vehicle complies with the requirements covered in the Standard on Tank Vehicles for Flammable Liquids, NFPA 385-1966.

(2) The dispensing is done on premises not open to the public.

(3) [Reserved]

(4) The dispensing hose does not exceed 50 feet in length.

(5) The dispensing nozzle is a listed automatic-closing type without a latchopen device.

(f) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.

(g) [Reserved]

Table H-18?Electrical Equipment Hazardous Areas?Bulk Plants

1 When classifying the extent of the area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles may be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.

2 Ordinary.

Location Class I Group D division Extent of classified area
Tank vehicle and tank car: 1

Loading through open dome 1 Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.

2 Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric venting 1 Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere extending in all directions.

2 Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of loading connection.
Loading through closed dome with atmospheric venting 12

Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions. Also within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.

Loading through closed dome with vapor recovery 2 Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
Bottom loading with vapor recovery or any bottom unloading 2 Within 3 feet of point of connections extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade with in a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
Drum and container filling:
Outdoors, or indoors with adequate ventilation 1 Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.

2 Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Outdoors, or indoors with adequate ventilation 1 Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.

2 Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Tank?Aboveground:
Shell, ends, or roof and dike area 2 Within 10 feet from shell, ends, or roof of tank, Area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
Vent 1 Within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.

2 Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Floating roof 1 Area above the roof and within the shell.
Pits:
Without mechanical ventilation 1 Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
With mechanical ventilation 2 Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Containing valves, fittings or piping, and not within a Division 1 or 2 classified area 2 Entire pit.
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings, meters and similar devices:
Indoors 2 Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Outdoors 2 Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade level within 10 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Storage and repair garage for tank vehicles 1 All pits or spaces below floor level.

2 Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
Drainage ditches, separators, impounding basins 2 Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin. Also up to 18 inches above grade within 15 feet horizontally from any edge.
Garages for other than tank vehicles (2 ) If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
Outdoor drum storage (2 )
Indoor warehousing where there is no flammable liquid transfer (2 ) If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified are, the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Office and rest rooms (2 )

(ii) Special enclosures. (a) When installation of tanks in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section is impractical because of property or building limitations, tanks for flammable liquids may be installed in buildings if properly enclosed.

(b) The enclosure shall be substantially liquid and vaportight without backfill. Sides, top, and bottom of the enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches thick, with openings for inspection through the top only. Tank connections shall be so piped or closed that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space. Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment may be employed to discharge to the outside any liquid or vapors which might accumulate should leakage occur.

(iii) Inside buildings. (a) Except where stored in tanks as provided in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, no Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be stored within any service station building except in closed containers of aggregate capacity not exceeding 60 gallons. One container not exceeding 60 gallons capacity equipped with an approved pump is permitted.

(b) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), may be transferred from one container to another in lubrication or service rooms of a service station building provided the electrical installation complies with Table H-19 and provided that any heating equipment complies with paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

(c) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored and dispensed inside service station buildings from tanks of not more than 120 gallons capacity each.

(iv) [Reserved]

(v) Dispensing into portable containers. No delivery of any Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be made into portable containers unless the container is constructed of metal, has a tight closure with screwed or spring cover, and is fitted with a spout or so designed so the contents can be poured without spilling.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) Dispensing systems?(i) Location. Dispensing devices at automotive service stations shall be so located that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on the premises of the service station.

(ii) Inside location. Approved dispensing units may be located inside of buildings. The dispensing area shall be separated from other areas in an approved manner. The dispensing unit and its piping shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means and shall be located in a position where it cannot be struck by a vehicle descending a ramp or other slope out of control. The dispensing area shall be provided with an approved mechanical or gravity ventilation system. When dispensing units are located below grade, only approved mechanical ventilation shall be used and the entire dispensing area shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Ventilating systems shall be electrically interlocked with gasoline dispensing units so that the dispensing units cannot be operated unless the ventilating fan motors are energized.

(iii) Emergency power cutoff. A clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) or a circuit breaker(s) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices, including remote pumping systems, to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.

(iv) Dispensing units. (a) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps so designed and equipped as to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage or accidental discharge.

(b)(1) Only listed devices may be used for dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C). No such device may be used if it shows evidence of having been dismantled.

(2) Every dispensing device for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), installed after December 31, 1978, shall contain evidence of listing so placed that any attempt to dismantle the device will result in damage to such evidence, visible without disassembly or dismounting of the nozzle.

(c) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be dispensed by pressure from drums, barrels, and similar containers. Approved pumps taking suction through the top of the container or approved self-closing faucets shall be used.

(d) The dispensing units, except those attached to containers, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means.

(v) Remote pumping systems. (a) This paragraph (g)(3)(v) shall apply to systems for dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), where such liquids are transferred from storage to individual or multiple dispensing units by pumps located elsewhere than at the dispensing units.

(b) Pumps shall be designed or equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to pressures above its allowable working pressure. Pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 10 feet from lines of adjoining property which may be built upon, and not less than 5 feet from any building opening. When an outside pump location is impractical, pumps may be installed inside of buildings, as provided for dispensers in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, or in pits as provided in subdivision (c) of this subdivision. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage by vehicles.

(c) Pits for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to which they may be subjected without damage to the pump, tank, or piping. The pit shall be no larger than necessary for inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fitted cover.

(d) A control shall be provided that will permit the pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket on the dispensing unit and the switch on this dispensing unit is manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when all nozzles have been returned to their brackets.

(e) An approved impact valve, incorporating a fusible link, designed to close automatically in the event of severe impact or fire exposure shall be properly installed in the dispensing supply line at the base of each individual dispensing device.

(f) Testing. After the completion of the installation, including any paving, that section of the pressure piping system between the pump discharge and the connection for the dispensing facility shall be tested for at least 30 minutes at the maximum operating pressure of the system. Such tests shall be repeated at 5-year intervals thereafter.

(vi) Delivery nozzles. (a) A listed manual or automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve shall be provided on dispensers used for the dispensing of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C).

(b) Manual-closing type valves shall be held open manually during dispensing. Automatic-closing type valves may be used in conjunction with an approved latch-open device.

(4) Marine service stations?(i) Dispensing. (a) The dispensing area shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in all cases be at least 20 feet from any activity involving fixed sources of ignition.

(b) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or without integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docks or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.

(c) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-open latch.

(ii) Tanks and pumps. (a) Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensing unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except as provided in paragraphs (g)(4)(ii) (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines to dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicable portions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to spacing, diking, and piping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100 gallons aggregate capacity.

(c) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located above ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanks impractical.

(d) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in paragraph (b)(2)(ix)(b) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.

(iii) Piping. (a) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be as described in paragraph (c) of this section, except that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.

ER26MR12.058

ER26MR12.059

(b) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at the shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose is attached.

(c) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.

(d) Piping handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall be grounded to control stray currents.

(5) Electrical equipment?(i) Application. This paragraph (g)(5) shall apply to areas where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are stored or handled. For areas where Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled the electrical equipment may be installed in accordance with the provisions of subpart S of this part, for ordinary locations.

(ii) All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(iii) So far as it applies. Table H-19 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition.

(iv) The area classifications listed shall be based on the assumption that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.

(6) Heating equipment?(i) Conformance. Heating equipment shall be installed as provided in paragraphs (g)(6) (ii) through (v) of this section.

(ii) Application. Heating equipment may be installed in the conventional manner in an area except as provided in paragraph (g)(6) (iii), (iv), or (v) of this section.

(iii) Special room. Heating equipment may be installed in a special room separated from an area classified by Table H-19 by walls having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour and without any openings in the walls within 8 feet of the floor into an area classified in Table H-19. This room shall not be used for combustible storage and all air for combustion purposes shall come from outside the building.

(iv) Work areas. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel may be installed in the lubrication, sales, or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids or 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 18 inches above the floor and the heating equipment is protected from physical damage by vehicles. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel listed for use in garages may be installed in the lubrication or service room where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are dispensed provided the equipment is installed at least 8 feet above the floor.

(v) Electric heat. Electrical heating equipment shall conform to paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(7) Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made in the area where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), are dispensed to prevent spilled liquids from flowing into the interior of service station buildings. Such provision may be by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other equally effective means. Crankcase drainings and flammable liquids shall not be dumped into sewers but shall be stored in tanks or drums outside of any building until removed from the premises.

(8) Sources of ignition. In addition to the previous restrictions of this paragraph, the following shall apply: There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable liquids. Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted within sight of the customer being served. The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation.

(9) Fire control. Each service station shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a minimum approved classification of 6 B, C, located so that an extinguisher, will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service room.

(h) Processing plants?(1) Scope. This paragraph shall apply to those plants or buildings which contain chemical operations such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes but shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.

(2) Location?(i) Classification. The location of each processing vessel shall be based upon its flammable liquid capacity.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Processing building?(i) Construction. (a) Processing buildings shall be of fire-resistance or noncombustible construction, except heavy timber construction with load-bearing walls may be permitted for plants utilizing only stable Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section or in the case of explosion resistant walls used in conjunction with explosion relieving facilities, see paragraph (h)(3)(iv) of this section, load-bearing walls are prohibited. Buildings shall be without basements or covered pits.

(b) Areas shall have adequate exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire. Exits shall not be exposed by the drainage facilities described in paragraph (h)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Drainage. (a) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire, see paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(b) of this section.

(b) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separators.

(iii) Ventilation. (a) Enclosed processing buildings shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provisions shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.

(b) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than 5 feet from equipment which exposes Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.

(iv) Explosion relief. Areas where Category 1 or unstable liquids are processed shall have explosion venting through one or more of the following methods:

(a) Open air construction.

(b) Lightweight walls and roof.

(c) Lightweight wall panels and roof hatches.

(d) Windows of explosion venting type.

(4) Liquid handling?(i) Storage. (a) The storage of flammable liquids in tanks shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the storage of flammable liquids in outside aboveground or underground tanks is not practical because of temperature or production considerations, tanks may be permitted inside of buildings or structures in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.

(c) Storage tanks inside of buildings shall be permitted only in areas at or above grade which have adequate drainage and are separated from the processing area by construction having a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours.

(d) The storage of flammable liquids in containers shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Approved flexible connectors may be used where vibration exists or where frequent movement is necessary. Approved hose may be used at transfer stations.

(c) Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified.

(iii) Transfer. (a) The transfer of large quantities of flammable liquids shall be through piping by means of pumps or water displacement. Except as required in process equipment, gravity flow shall not be used. The use of compressed air as a transferring medium is prohibited.

(b) Positive displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank or to pump suction.

(iv) Equipment. (a) Equipment shall be designed and arranged to prevent the unintentional escape of liquids and vapors and to minimize the quantity escaping in the event of accidental release.

(b) Where the vapor space of equipment is usually within the flammable range, the probability of explosion damage to the equipment can be limited by inerting, by providing an explosion suppression system, or by designing the equipment to contain the peak explosion pressure which may be modified by explosion relief. Where the special hazards of operation, sources of ignition, or exposures indicate a need, consideration shall be given to providing protection by one or more of the above means.

(5) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings, or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(6) Fire control?(i) Portable extinguishers. Approved portable fire extinguishers of appropriate size, type, and number shall be provided.

(ii) Other controls. Where the special hazards of operation or exposure indicate a need, the following fire control provision shall be provided.

(a) A reliable water supply shall be available in pressure and quantity adequate to meet the probable fire demands.

(b) Hydrants shall be provided in accordance with accepted good practice.

(c) Hose connected to a source of water shall be installed so that all vessels, pumps, and other equipment containing flammable liquids can be reached with at least one hose stream. Nozzles that are capable of discharging a water spray shall be provided.

(d) Processing plants shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system or equivalent extinguishing system. If special extinguishing systems including but not limited to those employing foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical are provided, approved equipment shall be used and installed in an approved manner.

(iii) Alarm systems. An approved means for prompt notification of fire to those within the plant and any public fire department available shall be provided. It may be advisable to connect the plant system with the public system where public fire alarm system is available.

(iv) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition and that they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.

(7) Sources of ignition?(i) General. (a) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.

(b) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(ii) Maintenance and repair. (a) When necessary to do maintenance work in a flammable liquid processing area, the work shall be authorized by a responsible representative of the employer.

(b) Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge who shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.

(iii) Electrical. (a) All electric wiring and equipment shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(b) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(b) of this section, the Division 1 area shall extend 5 feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.

(c) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. These locations include an area within 20 feet horizontally, 3 feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet, if indoors, or 10 feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ?F (37.8 ?C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ?F (37.8 ?C) or Category 4 flammable liquids only are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.

(d) Where the provisions of paragraphs (h)(7)(iii) (a), (b), and (c) of this section require the installation of explosion-proof equipment, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.

(8) Housekeeping?(i) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.

(ii) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of the processing equipment.

(iii) Waste and residues. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in closed metal waste cans, and disposed of daily.

(iv) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and operating areas shall be kept free of tall grass, weeds, trash, or other combustible materials.

(i) Refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries?(1) Storage tanks. Flammable liquids shall be stored in tanks, in containers, or in portable tanks. Tanks shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. Tanks for the storage of flammable liquids in tank farms and in locations other than process areas shall be located in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(2) Wharves. Wharves handling flammable liquids shall be in accordance with paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(3) Fired and unfired pressure vessels?(i) Fired vessels. Fired pressure vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Fired Pressure Vessels, Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code?1968.

(ii) Unfired vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code?1968.

(4) Location of process units. Process units shall be located so that they are accessible from at least one side for the purpose of fire control.

(5) Fire control?(i) Portable equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.

(ii) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.

(iii) Special equipment. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.

(j) Scope. This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or below 199.4 ?F (93 ?C) unless otherwise noted. This section does not apply to:

(1) Bulk transportation of flammable liquids;

(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil burning equipment;

(3) Storage of flammable liquids on farms;

(4) Liquids without flashpoints that may be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons;

(5) Mists, sprays, or foams, except flammable aerosols covered in paragraph (d) of this section; or

(6) Installations made in accordance with requirements of the following standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in ? 1910.6:

(i) National Fire Protection Association Standard for Drycleaning Plants, NFPA No. 32-1970;

(ii) National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, NFPA No. 35-1970;

(iii) National Fire Protection Association Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, NFPA No. 36-1967; or

(iv) National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, NFPA No. 37-1970.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 3982, Jan. 27, 1975; 40 FR 23743, June 2, 1975; 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 43 FR 51759, Nov. 7, 1978; 47 FR 39164, Sept. 7, 1982; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9237, Mar. 7, 1996; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005; 77 FR 17765, Mar. 26, 2012]