Title 49: Transportation
Subtitle B: Other Regulations Relating to Transportation
CHAPTER I: PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SUBCHAPTER C: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS
PART 178: SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS
Subpart C: Specifications for Cylinders
178.61 - Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded longitudinal seam.
(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4BW cylinder is a welded type steel cylinder with a longitudinal electric-arc welded seam, a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure at least 225 and not over 500 psig gauge. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.
(b) Authorized steel. Steel used in the construction of the cylinder must conform to the following:
(1) The body of the cylinder must be constructed of steel conforming to the limits specified in table 1 of appendix A to this part.
(2) Material for heads must meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section or be open hearth, electric or basic oxygen carbon steel of uniform quality. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon 0.25, Manganese 0.60, Phosphorus 0.045, Sulfur 0.050. Heads must be hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with a maximum ratio of 2.1. If low carbon steel is used, the thickness of such heads must be determined by using a maximum wall stress of 24,000 p.s.i. in the formula described in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.
(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.
(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and the following:
(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. Heads must be concave to pressure.
(2) Circumferential seams must be by electric-arc welding. Joints must be butt with one member offset (joggle butt) or lap with minimum overlap of at least four times nominal sheet thickness.
(3) Longitudinal seams in shells must conform to the following:
(i) Longitudinal electric-arc welded seams must be of the butt welded type. Welds must be made by a machine process including automatic feed and welding guidance mechanisms. Longitudinal seams must have complete joint penetration, and must be free from undercuts, overlaps or abrupt ridges or valleys. Misalignment of mating butt edges may not exceed 1/6 of nominal sheet thickness or 1/32 inch whichever is less. All joints with nominal sheet thickness up to and including 1/8 inch must be tightly butted. When nominal sheet thickness is greater than 1/8 inch, the joint must be gapped with maximum distance equal to one-half the nominal sheet thickness or 1/32 inch whichever is less. Joint design, preparation and fit-up must be such that requirements of this paragraph (d) are satisfied.
(ii) Maximum joint efficiency must be 1.0 when each seam is radiographed completely. Maximum joint efficiency must be 0.90 when one cylinder from each lot of 50 consecutively welded cylinders is spot radiographed. In addition, one out of the first five cylinders welded following a shut down of welding operations exceeding four hours must be spot radiographed. Spot radiographs, when required, must be made of a finished welded cylinder and must include the girth weld for 2 inches in both directions from the intersection of the longitudinal and girth welds and include at least 6 inches of the longitudinal weld. Maximum joint efficacy of 0.75 must be permissible without radiography.
(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see ? 171.7 of this subchapter).
(e) Welding of attachments. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads and valve protection rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.
(f) Wall thickness. For outside diameters over 6 inches the minimum wall thickness must be 0.078 inch. For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4 to1 (4:1). In any case the minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress calculated by the formula listed in paragraph (f)(4) of this section may not exceed the lesser value of any of the following:
(1) The value referenced in paragraph (b) of this section for the particular material under consideration.
(2) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.
(3) 35,000 psi.
(4) Stress must be calculated by the following formula:
S = [2P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / [E(D2 ? d2)]
S = wall stress, psi;
P = service pressure, psig;
D = outside diameter, inches;
d = inside diameter, inches;
E = joint efficiency of the longitudinal seam (from paragraph (d) of this section).
(g) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the applicable method referenced in Table 1 of appendix A to this part. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations. Heat treatment is not required after welding or brazing of weldable low carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 ?F in any part of the top or bottom material.
(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in the cylinder must conform to the following:
(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.
(2) Openings in cylinders must be provided with adequate fittings, bosses, or pads, integral with or securely attached to the cylinder by welding.
(3) Threads must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean cut and to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard Taper Pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.
(4) Closure of fittings, boss or pads must be adequate to prevent leakage.
(i) Hydrostatic test. Cylinders must withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:
(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit readings to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit readings of total volumetric expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.
(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.
(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:
(i) At least 1 cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section to at least two times service pressure.
(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and show no defect.
(5) One finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 500 or less successively produced must be hydrostatically tested to 4 times service pressure without bursting.
(j) Physical tests. Cylinders must be subjected to a physical test as follows:
(1) Specimens must be taken from one cylinder after heat treatment and chosen at random from each lot of 200 or less, as follows:
(i) Body specimen. One specimen must be taken longitudinally from the body section at least 90 degrees away from the weld.
(ii) Head specimen. One specimen must be taken from either head on a cylinder when both heads are made of the same material. However, if the two heads are made of differing materials, a specimen must be taken from each head.
(iii) If due to welded attachments on the top head there is insufficient surface from which to take a specimen, it may be taken from a representative head of the same heat treatment as the test cylinder.
(2) Specimens must conform to the following:
(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 3/16 inch thick.
(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.
(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows when specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.
(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the ?off-set? method or the ?extension under load? method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see ? 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) In using the ?extension under load? method, the total strain (or ?extension under load?), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2-percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2-percent offset.
(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.
(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2-inch specimens and by 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four increments.
(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be subjected to the following tests:
(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less. The specimen must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.
(2) Guided bend test. A root test specimen must be cut from the cylinder used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.
(3) Alternate guided bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gauge lines a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.
(m) Radiographic examination. Welds of the cylinders must be subjected to a radiographic examination as follows:
(1) Radiographic inspection must conform to the techniques and acceptability criteria set forth in CGA Pamphlet C-3. When fluoroscopic inspection is used, permanent film records need not be retained.
(2) Should spot radiographic examination fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (m)(1) of this section, two additional welds from the same lot of 50 cylinders or less must be examined, and if either of these fail to meet the requirements, each cylinder must be examined as previously outlined; only those passing are acceptable.
(n) Rejected cylinders. (1) Unless otherwise stated, if a sample cylinder or specimen taken from a lot of cylinders fails the prescribed test, then two additional specimens must be selected from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed test. If either of these fails the test, then the entire lot must be rejected.
(2) Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized provided that all defective metal is cut away and the joint is rewelded as prescribed for original welded joints.
(o) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in any of the following locations on the cylinder:
(1) On shoulders and top heads when they are not less than 0.087-inch thick.
(2) On a metal plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least 1/16-inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing. The brazing rod is to melt at a temperature of 1100 ?F Welding or brazing must be along all the edges of the plate.
(3) On the neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.
(4) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 25 pounds.
(p) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by ? 178.35, the inspector's report must indicate the type and amount of radiography.
[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 51919, Sept. 27, 1999; 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 6, 2002; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]