26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE

CHAPTER I - INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

SUBCHAPTER A - INCOME TAX

PART 1 - INCOME TAXES

1.62 - 1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

(a) Basis for determining the amount of certain deductions. The term adjusted gross income means the gross income computed under section 61 minus such of the deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Code as are specified in section 62(a). Adjusted gross income is used as the basis for determining the following: (1) The limitation on the amount of miscellaneous itemized deductions (under section 67).

(2) The limitation on the amount of the deduction for casualty losses (under section 165(h)(2)), (3) The limitation on the amount of the deduction for charitable contributions (under section 170(b)(1)), (4) The limitation on the amount of the deduction for medical and dental expenses (under section 213), (5) The limitation on the amount of the deduction for qualified retirement contributions for active participants in certain pension plans (under section 219(g)), and (6) The phase-out of the exemption from the disallowance of passive activity losses and credits (under section 469(i)(3)).

(b) Double deduction not permitted. Section 62 (a) merely specifies which of the deductions provided in chapter 1 of the Code shall be allowed in computing adjusted gross income. It does not create any new deductions. The fact that a particular item may be described in more than one of the paragraphs under section 62(a) does not permit the item to be deducted twice in computing adjusted gross income or taxable income.

(c) Deductions allowable in computing adjusted gross income. The deductions specified in section 62(a) for purposes of computing adjusted gross income are: (1) Deductions allowable under chapter 1 of the Code (other than by part VII (section 211 and folllowing), subchapter B of such chapter) that are attributable to a trade or business carried on by the taxpayer not consisting of services performed as an employee; (2) [Reserved] (3) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, deductions allowable under section 162 that consist of expenses paid or incurred by a qualified performing artist (as defined in section 62(b)) in connection with the performance by him or her of services in the performing arts as an employee; (4) Deductions allowable under part VI as losses from the sale or exchange of property; (5) Deductions allowable under part VI, section 212, or section 611 that are attributable to property held for the production of rents or royalties; (6) Deductions for depreciation or depletion allowable under sections 167 or 611 to a life tenant of property or to an income beneficiary of property held in trust or to an heir, legatee, or devisee of an estate; (7) Deductions allowed by section 404 for contributions on behalf of a self-employed individual; (8) Deductions allowed by section 219 for contributions to an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), or for an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b); (9) Deductions allowed by section 402(e)(3) with respect to a lump-sum distribution; (10) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972, deductions allowed by section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a trade or business, to the extent that such losses include amounts forfeited to a bank, mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank or homestead association as a penalty for premature withdrawal of funds from a time savings account, certificate of deposit, or similar class of deposit; (11) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976, deductions for alimony and separate maintenance payments allowed by section 215; (12) Deductions allowed by section 194 for the amortization of reforestation expenditures; and (13) Deductions allowed by section 165 for the repayment (made in a taxable year beginning after December 28, 1980) to a trust described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c) of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits received from such trust if such repayment is required because of the receipt of trade readjustment allowances under section 231 or 232 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2291 and 2292).

(d) Expenses directly related to a trade or business. For the purpose of the deductions specified in section 62, the performance of personal services as an employee does not constitute the carrying on of a trade or business, except as otherwise expressly provided. The practice of a profession, not as an employee, is considered the conduct of a trade or business within the meaning of such section. To be deductible for the purposes of determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected with the conduct of a trade or business. For example, taxes are deductible in arriving at adjusted gross income only if they constitute expenditures directly attributable to a trade or business or to property from which rents or royalties are derived. Thus, property taxes paid or incurred on real property used in a trade or business are deductible, but state taxes on net income are not deductible even though the taxpayer's income is derived from the conduct of a trade or business.

(e) Reimbursed and unreimbursed employee expenses(1) In general.

Expenses paid or incurred by an employee that are deductible from gross income under part VI in computing taxable income (determined without regard to section 67) and for which the employee is reimbursed by the employer, its agent, or third party (for whom the employee performs a benefit as an employee of the employer) under an express agreement for reimbursement or pursuant to an express expense allowance arrangement may be deducted from gross income in computing adjusted gross income.

Except as provided in paragraphs (e)(2) and (e)(4) of this section, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, if the amount of a reimbursement made by an employer, its agent, or third party to an employee is less than the total amount of the business expenses paid or incurred by the employee, the determination of to which of the employee's business expenses the reimbursement applies and the amount of each expense that is covered by the reimbursement is made on the basis of all of the facts and circumstances of the particular case.

(2) Facts and circumstances unclear on business expenses for meals and entertainment. If (i) The facts and circumstances do not make clear (A) That a reimbursement does not apply to business expenses for meals or entertainment, or (B) The amount of business expenses for meals or entertainment that is covered by the reimbursement, and (ii) The employee pays or incurs business expenses for meals or entertainment, the amount of the reimbursement that applies to such expenses (or portion thereof with respect to which the facts and circumstances are unclear) shall be determined by multiplying the amount of the employee's business expenses for meals and entertainment (or portion thereof with respect to which the facts and circumstances are unclear) by a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount of the reimbursement (or portion thereof with respect to which the facts and circumstances are unclear) and the denominator of which is the aggregate amount of all the business expenses of the employee (or portion thereof with respect to which the facts and circumstances are unclear).

(3) Deductibility of unreimbursed expenses. The amount of expenses that is determined not to be reimbursed pursuant to paragraph (e) (1) or (2) of this section is deductible from adjusted gross income in determining the employee's taxable income subject to the limitations applicable to such expenses (e.g., the 2-percent floor of section 67 and the 80-percent limitation on meal and entertainment expenses provided for in section 274(n)).

(4) Unreimbursed expenses of State legislators. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, any portion of the amount allowed as a deduction to State legislators pursuant to section 162(h)1)(B) that is not reimbursed by the State or a third party shall be allocated between lodging and meals in the same ratio as the amounts allowable for lodging and meals under the Federal per diem applicable to the legislator's State capital at the end of the legislator's taxable year (see Appendix 1A of the Federal Travel Regulations (FTR), which as of March 28, 1988, are contained in GSA Bulletin FPMR A40, Supplement 20). For purposes of this paragraph (e)(4), the amount allowable for meals under the Federal per diem shall be the amount of the Federal per diem allowable for meals and incidental expenses reduced by $2 per legislative day (or other amount allocated to incidental expenses in 17.5(a)(2) of the FTR). The unreimbursed portion of each type of expense is deductible from adjusted gross income in determining the State legislator's taxable income subject to the limitations applicable to such expenses. For example, the unreimbursed portion allocable to meals shall be reduced by 20 percent pursuant to section 274(n) before being subjected to the 2-percent floor of section 67 for purposes of computing the taxable income of a State legislator. See 1.671T(a)(2).

(5) Expenses paid directly by an employer, its agent, or third party. In the case of an employer, its agent, or a third party who provides property or services to an employee or who pays an employee's expenses directly instead of reimbursing the employee, see section 132 and the regulations thereunder for the income tax treatment of such expenses.

(6) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (e) may be illustrated by the following examples: Example (1). During 1987, A, an employee, while on business trips away from home pays $300 for travel fares, $200 for lodging and $100 for meals. In addition, A pays $50 for business meals in the area of his place of employment (local meals), $250 for continuing education courses, and $100 for business-related entertainment (other than meals).

The total amount of the reimbursements received by A for his employee expenses from his employer is $750, and it is assumed that A's expenses meet the deductibility requirements of sections 162 and 274. A includes the amount of the reimbursement in his gross income. A's employer designates the reimbursement to cover in full A's expenses for travel fares, lodging, and meals while away from home, local meals, and entertainment, and no facts or circumstances indicate a contrary intention of the employer. Because the facts and circumstances make clear the amount of A's business expenses for meals and entertainment that is covered by the reimbursement, the reimbursement will be allocated to these expenses. In determining his adjusted gross income under section 62, A may deduct the full amount of the reimbursement for travel fares, lodging, and meals while away from home, local meals, and entertainment. In determining his taxable income under section 63, A may deduct his expenses for continuing education courses to the extent allowable by sections 67 and 162.

Example (2). Assume the facts are the same as in example (1) except that the facts and circumstances make clear that the reimbursement covers all types of deductible expenses but they do not make clear the amount of each type of expense that is covered by the reimbursement. The amount of the reimbursement that is allocated to A's business expenses for meals and entertainment is $187.50. This amount is determined by multiplying the total amount of A's business expenses for meals and entertainment ($250) by the ratio of A's total reimbursement to A's total business expenses ($750/$1,000). The remaining amount of the reimbursement, $562.50 ($750$187.50), is allocated to A's business expenses other than meal and entertainment expenses. Therefore, in determining his adjusted gross income under section 62, A may deduct $750 for reimbursed business expenses (including meals and entertainment). In determining his taxable income under section 63, A may deduct (subject to the limitations and conditions of sections 67, 162, and 274) the unreimbursed portion of his expenses for meals and entertainment ($62.50 ($250$187.50), and other employee business expenses ($187.50 ($750$562.50)).

Example (3). Assume the facts are the same as in example (1) except that the amount of the reimbursement is $500. Assume further that the facts and circumstances make clear that the reimbursement covers $100 of expenses for meals and that the remaining $400 of the reimbursement covers all types of deductible expenses (including any expenses for meals in excess of the $100 already designated) other than expenses for entertainment. The amount of the reimbursement that is allocated to A's business expenses for meals and entertainment is $125. This amount is equal to the sum of the amount of the reimbursement that clearly applies to meals ($100) and the amount of the reimbursement with respect to which the facts are unclear that is allocated to meals ($25). The latter amount is determined by multiplying the total amount of A's business expenses for meals and entertainment with respect to which the facts are unclear ($50) by the ratio of A's total reimbursement with respect to which the facts are unclear to A's total business expenses with respect to which the facts are unclear ($400/$800). The remaining amount of the reimbursement, $375 ($500$125) is allocated to A's business expenses other than meals and entertainment. Therefore, in determining his adjusted gross income under section 62, A may deduct $500 for reimbursed business expenses (including meals). In determining his taxable income under section 63, A may deduct (subject to the limitations and conditions of sections 67, 162, and 274) the unreimbursed portion of his expenses for meals ($25 ($150$125)), entertainment ($100), and other employee business expenses ($375 ($750$375)).

Example (4). During 1987 B, a research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y, a professional organization of scientists, describing her most recent research findings. Pursuant to a reimbursement arrangement, Y reimburses B for the full amount of her travel fares to the site of the speech and for the full amount of her expenses for lodging and meals while there. B includes the amount of the reimbursement in her gross income. B may deduct the full amount of her travel expenses pursuant to section 62(a)(2)(A) in computing her adjusted gross income.

(f) [Reserved] (g) Moving expenses. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, a taxpayer described in section 217(a) shall not take into account the deduction described in section 217 relating to moving expenses in computing adjusted gross income under section 62 even if the taxpayer is reimbursed for his or her moving expenses. Such a taxpayer shall include the amount of any reimbursement for moving expenses in income pursuant to section 82. The deduction described in section 217 shall be taken into account in computing the taxable income of the taxpayer under section 63. Pursuant to section 67(b)(6), the 2-percent floor described in section 67(a) does not apply to moving expenses.

(h) Cross-reference. See 26 CFR 1.621 (Rev. as of April 1, 1986) with respect to pre-1987 deductions for travel, meal, lodging, transportation, and other trade or business expenses of an employee, reimbursed expenses of an employee, expenses of an outside salesperson, long-term capital gains, contributions described in section 405(c) to a bond purchase plan on behalf of a self-employed individual, moving expenses, amounts not received as benefits pursuant to section 1379(b)(3), and retirement bonds described in section 409 (allowed by section 219).

[T.D. 8189, 53 FR 9873, Mar. 28, 1988, as amended by T.D. 8276, 54 FR 51024, Dec. 12, 1989; T.D. 8324, 55 FR 51691, Dec. 17, 1990; T.D. 8451, 57 FR 57668, Dec. 7, 1992]